web开发规范

  1. 文件编码
  2. 文件命名规则
  3. HTML
    1. 语法
    2. HTML5 doctype
    3. lang属性
    4. 字符编码
    5. IE兼容模式
    6. 引入CSS, JS
    7. 属性顺序
    8. boolean属性
    9. 减少标签数量
    10. 语义化
    11. id 和 class 命名约定
  4. CSS
    1. 缩进
    2. 分号
    3. 空格
    4. 换行
    5. 注释
    6. 引号
    7. 命名
    8. 属性声明顺序
    9. 颜色
    10. 属性简写
    11. 媒体查询
    12. 杂项

文件编码

前端开发涉及的所文件统一使用utf-8编码

文件命名规则

全部小写方式,以下划线分隔

例:my_project

特例:drupal中的模版文件

HTML

语法

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<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<title>Page title</title>
</head>
<body>
<img src="images/company_logo.png" alt="Company">
<h1 class="hello-world">Hello, world!</h1>
</body>
</html>

HTML5 doctype

在页面开头使用这个简单地doctype来启用标准模式,使其在每个浏览器中尽可能一致的展现;

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<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
...
</html>

lang属性

根据HTML5规范:

应在html标签上加上lang属性。这会给语音工具和翻译工具帮助,告诉它们应当怎么去发音和翻译。

在sitepoint上可以查到语言列表

但sitepoint只是给出了语言的大类,例如中文只给出了zh,但是没有区分香港,台湾,大陆。而微软给出了一份更加详细的语言列表,其中细分了zh-cn, zh-hk, zh-tw。

字符编码

通过声明一个明确的字符编码,让浏览器轻松、快速的确定适合网页内容的渲染方式,通常指定为UTF-8

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<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<meta charset="UTF-8">
</head>
...
</html>

IE兼容模式

<meta> 标签可以指定页面应该用什么版本的IE来渲染;

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<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=Edge">
</head>
...
</html>

引入CSS, JS

根据HTML5规范, 通常在引入CSS和JS时不需要指明 type,因为 text/csstext/javascript 分别是他们的默认值。

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<!-- External CSS -->
<link rel="stylesheet" href="code_guide.css">
<!-- In-document CSS -->
<style>
...
</style>
<!-- External JS -->
<script src="code_guide.js"></script>
<!-- In-document JS -->
<script>
...
</script>

属性顺序

属性应该按照特定的顺序出现以保证易读性;

class是为高可复用组件设计的,所以应处在第一位;

id更加具体且应该尽量少使用,所以将它放在第二位。

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<a class="..." id="..." data-modal="toggle" href="#">Example link</a>
<input class="form-control" type="text">
<img src="..." alt="...">

boolean属性

boolean属性指不需要声明取值的属性,XHTML需要每个属性声明取值,但是HTML5并不需要;

更多内容可以参考 WhatWG section on boolean attributes

boolean属性的存在表示取值为true,不存在则表示取值为false。

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<input type="text" disabled>
<input type="checkbox" value="1" checked>
<select>
<option value="1" selected>1</option>
</select>

减少标签数量

在编写HTML代码时,需要尽量避免多余的父节点;

很多时候,需要通过迭代和重构来使HTML变得更少。

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<!-- Not well -->
<span class="avatar">
<img src="...">
</span>
<!-- Better -->
<img class="avatar" src="...">

语义化

使用符合语义的标签书写 HTML 文档, 选择恰当的元素表达所需的含义。

id 和 class 命名约定

CSS

缩进

使用2个空格缩进

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.element {
position: absolute;
top: 10px;
left: 10px;
border-radius: 10px;
width: 50px;
height: 50px;
}

分号

每个属性声明末尾都要加分号

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.element {
width: 20px;
height: 20px;
background-color: red;
}

空格

以下几种情况不需要空格:

以下几种情况需要空格:

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/* not good */
.element {
color :red! important;
background-color: rgba(0,0,0,.5);
}
/* good */
.element {
color: red !important;
background-color: rgba(0, 0, 0, .5);
}
/* not good */
.element ,
.dialog{
...
}
/* good */
.element,
.dialog {
}
/* not good */
.element>.dialog{
...
}
/* good */
.element > .dialog {
...
}
/* not good */
.element{
...
}
/* good */
.element {
...
}

换行

以下几种情况不需要换行:

以下几种情况需要换行:

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/* not good */
.element
{color: red; background-color: black;}
/* good */
.element {
color: red;
background-color: black;
}
/* not good */
.element, .dialog {
...
}
/* good */
.element,
.dialog {
...
}

注释

注释统一用/* */

缩进与下一行代码保持一致

可位于一个代码行的末尾,与代码间隔一个空格

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/* Modal header */
.modal-header {
...
}
/*
* Modal header
*/
.modal-header {
...
}
.modal-header {
/* 50px */
width: 50px;
color: red; /* color red */
}

引号

最外层统一使用双引号;

url的内容要用引号;

属性选择器中的属性值需要引号。

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.element:after {
content: "";
background-image: url("logo.png");
}
li[data-type="single"] {
...
}

命名

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/* class */
.element-content {
...
}
/* id */
#myDialog {
...
}

属性声明顺序

相关的属性声明按照顺序做分组处理,组之间需要有一个空行,这个可选

由外向里写属性,先是外壳怎么属性,displayfloat,接着是定位相关的属性,position等,然后是开始描外边距margin,边框粗细、颜色border,然后是内边距,哦,当然,可能有时候还来个圆角,框子描完了就开始描高度宽度width, height,接着是里面的内容,字体怎么显示(字体颜色,居中还是居左等等),然后是背景图啊之类的,最后是一些杂项,透明度,鼠标,动画等

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.declaration-order {
display: block;
float: right;
position: absolute;
top: 0;
right: 0;
bottom: 0;
left: 0;
z-index: 100;
border: 1px solid #e5e5e5;
border-radius: 3px;
width: 100px;
height: 100px;
font: normal 13px "Helvetica Neue", sans-serif;
line-height: 1.5;
text-align: center;
color: #333;
background-color: #f5f5f5;
opacity: 1;
}
// 下面是推荐的属性的顺序
[
[
"display",
"visibility",
"float",
"clear",
"overflow",
"overflow-x",
"overflow-y",
"clip",
"zoom"
],
[
"table-layout",
"empty-cells",
"caption-side",
"border-spacing",
"border-collapse",
"list-style",
"list-style-position",
"list-style-type",
"list-style-image"
],
[
"-webkit-box-orient",
"-webkit-box-direction",
"-webkit-box-decoration-break",
"-webkit-box-pack",
"-webkit-box-align",
"-webkit-box-flex"
],
[
"position",
"top",
"right",
"bottom",
"left",
"z-index"
],
[
"margin",
"margin-top",
"margin-right",
"margin-bottom",
"margin-left",
"-webkit-box-sizing",
"-moz-box-sizing",
"box-sizing",
"border",
"border-width",
"border-style",
"border-color",
"border-top",
"border-top-width",
"border-top-style",
"border-top-color",
"border-right",
"border-right-width",
"border-right-style",
"border-right-color",
"border-bottom",
"border-bottom-width",
"border-bottom-style",
"border-bottom-color",
"border-left",
"border-left-width",
"border-left-style",
"border-left-color",
"-webkit-border-radius",
"-moz-border-radius",
"border-radius",
"-webkit-border-top-left-radius",
"-moz-border-radius-topleft",
"border-top-left-radius",
"-webkit-border-top-right-radius",
"-moz-border-radius-topright",
"border-top-right-radius",
"-webkit-border-bottom-right-radius",
"-moz-border-radius-bottomright",
"border-bottom-right-radius",
"-webkit-border-bottom-left-radius",
"-moz-border-radius-bottomleft",
"border-bottom-left-radius",
"-webkit-border-image",
"-moz-border-image",
"-o-border-image",
"border-image",
"-webkit-border-image-source",
"-moz-border-image-source",
"-o-border-image-source",
"border-image-source",
"-webkit-border-image-slice",
"-moz-border-image-slice",
"-o-border-image-slice",
"border-image-slice",
"-webkit-border-image-width",
"-moz-border-image-width",
"-o-border-image-width",
"border-image-width",
"-webkit-border-image-outset",
"-moz-border-image-outset",
"-o-border-image-outset",
"border-image-outset",
"-webkit-border-image-repeat",
"-moz-border-image-repeat",
"-o-border-image-repeat",
"border-image-repeat",
"padding",
"padding-top",
"padding-right",
"padding-bottom",
"padding-left",
"width",
"min-width",
"max-width",
"height",
"min-height",
"max-height"
],
[
"font",
"font-family",
"font-size",
"font-weight",
"font-style",
"font-variant",
"font-size-adjust",
"font-stretch",
"font-effect",
"font-emphasize",
"font-emphasize-position",
"font-emphasize-style",
"font-smooth",
"line-height",
"text-align",
"-webkit-text-align-last",
"-moz-text-align-last",
"-ms-text-align-last",
"text-align-last",
"vertical-align",
"white-space",
"text-decoration",
"text-emphasis",
"text-emphasis-color",
"text-emphasis-style",
"text-emphasis-position",
"text-indent",
"-ms-text-justify",
"text-justify",
"letter-spacing",
"word-spacing",
"-ms-writing-mode",
"text-outline",
"text-transform",
"text-wrap",
"-ms-text-overflow",
"text-overflow",
"text-overflow-ellipsis",
"text-overflow-mode",
"-ms-word-wrap",
"word-wrap",
"-ms-word-break",
"word-break"
],
[
"color",
"background",
"filter:progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.AlphaImageLoader",
"background-color",
"background-image",
"background-repeat",
"background-attachment",
"background-position",
"-ms-background-position-x",
"background-position-x",
"-ms-background-position-y",
"background-position-y",
"-webkit-background-clip",
"-moz-background-clip",
"background-clip",
"background-origin",
"-webkit-background-size",
"-moz-background-size",
"-o-background-size",
"background-size"
],
[
"outline",
"outline-width",
"outline-style",
"outline-color",
"outline-offset",
"opacity",
"filter:progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.Alpha(Opacity",
"-ms-filter:\\'progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.Alpha",
"-ms-interpolation-mode",
"-webkit-box-shadow",
"-moz-box-shadow",
"box-shadow",
"filter:progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.gradient",
"-ms-filter:\\'progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.gradient",
"text-shadow"
],
[
"-webkit-transition",
"-moz-transition",
"-ms-transition",
"-o-transition",
"transition",
"-webkit-transition-delay",
"-moz-transition-delay",
"-ms-transition-delay",
"-o-transition-delay",
"transition-delay",
"-webkit-transition-timing-function",
"-moz-transition-timing-function",
"-ms-transition-timing-function",
"-o-transition-timing-function",
"transition-timing-function",
"-webkit-transition-duration",
"-moz-transition-duration",
"-ms-transition-duration",
"-o-transition-duration",
"transition-duration",
"-webkit-transition-property",
"-moz-transition-property",
"-ms-transition-property",
"-o-transition-property",
"transition-property",
"-webkit-transform",
"-moz-transform",
"-ms-transform",
"-o-transform",
"transform",
"-webkit-transform-origin",
"-moz-transform-origin",
"-ms-transform-origin",
"-o-transform-origin",
"transform-origin",
"-webkit-animation",
"-moz-animation",
"-ms-animation",
"-o-animation",
"animation",
"-webkit-animation-name",
"-moz-animation-name",
"-ms-animation-name",
"-o-animation-name",
"animation-name",
"-webkit-animation-duration",
"-moz-animation-duration",
"-ms-animation-duration",
"-o-animation-duration",
"animation-duration",
"-webkit-animation-play-state",
"-moz-animation-play-state",
"-ms-animation-play-state",
"-o-animation-play-state",
"animation-play-state",
"-webkit-animation-timing-function",
"-moz-animation-timing-function",
"-ms-animation-timing-function",
"-o-animation-timing-function",
"animation-timing-function",
"-webkit-animation-delay",
"-moz-animation-delay",
"-ms-animation-delay",
"-o-animation-delay",
"animation-delay",
"-webkit-animation-iteration-count",
"-moz-animation-iteration-count",
"-ms-animation-iteration-count",
"-o-animation-iteration-count",
"animation-iteration-count",
"-webkit-animation-direction",
"-moz-animation-direction",
"-ms-animation-direction",
"-o-animation-direction",
"animation-direction"
]
]

颜色

颜色16进制用小写字母;

颜色16进制尽量用简写。

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/* not good */
.element {
color: #ABCDEF;
background-color: #001122;
}
/* good */
.element {
color: #abcdef;
background-color: #012;
}

属性简写

属性简写需要你非常清楚属性值的正确顺序,而且在大多数情况下并不需要设置属性简写中包含的所有值,所以建议尽量分开声明会更加清晰;

marginpadding 相反,需要使用简写;

常见的属性简写包括:

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/* not good */
.element {
transition: opacity 1s linear 2s;
}
/* good */
.element {
transition-delay: 2s;
transition-timing-function: linear;
transition-duration: 1s;
transition-property: opacity;
}

媒体查询

尽量将媒体查询的规则靠近与他们相关的规则,不要将他们一起放到一个独立的样式文件中,或者丢在文档的最底部,这样做只会让大家以后更容易忘记他们

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.element {
...
}
.element-avatar{
...
}
@media (min-width: 480px) {
.element {
...
}
.element-avatar {
...
}
}

杂项

不允许有空的规则;

元素选择器用小写字母;

去掉小数点前面的0;

去掉数字中不必要的小数点和末尾的0;

属性值0后面不要加单位;

同个属性不同前缀的写法需要在垂直方向保持对齐,具体参照右边的写法;

无前缀的标准属性应该写在有前缀的属性后面;

不要在同个规则里出现重复的属性,如果重复的属性是连续的则没关系;

不要在一个文件里出现两个相同的规则;

border: 0; 代替 border: none;

选择器不要超过4层(在scss中如果超过4层应该考虑用嵌套的方式来写);

发布的代码中不要有 @import

尽量少用’*’选择器。

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/* not good */
.element {
}
/* not good */
LI {
...
}
/* good */
li {
...
}
/* not good */
.element {
color: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.5);
}
/* good */
.element {
color: rgba(0, 0, 0, .5);
}
/* not good */
.element {
width: 50.0px;
}
/* good */
.element {
width: 50px;
}
/* not good */
.element {
width: 0px;
}
/* good */
.element {
width: 0;
}
/* not good */
.element {
border-radius: 3px;
-webkit-border-radius: 3px;
-moz-border-radius: 3px;
background: linear-gradient(to bottom, #fff 0, #eee 100%);
background: -webkit-linear-gradient(top, #fff 0, #eee 100%);
background: -moz-linear-gradient(top, #fff 0, #eee 100%);
}
/* good */
.element {
-webkit-border-radius: 3px;
-moz-border-radius: 3px;
border-radius: 3px;
background: -webkit-linear-gradient(top, #fff 0, #eee 100%);
background: -moz-linear-gradient(top, #fff 0, #eee 100%);
background: linear-gradient(to bottom, #fff 0, #eee 100%);
}
/* not good */
.element {
color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
width: 50px;
color: rgba(0, 0, 0, .5);
}
/* good */
.element {
color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
color: rgba(0, 0, 0, .5);
}
script>